What is an Operating System? Types of OS

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 What is Operating System(OS)?


An operating system is system software that acts as an intermediary between computer users and the hardware of the computers. The operating system is used to provide an efficient interface in which users execute programs. The operating system is used to manage the hardware of the computers and allocate resources. Every computer has an operating system, the computer cannot work without an operating system.


Operating System functions


1. Memory Management

The operating system manages the main memory. Main memory is made up of large bytes of array or words where a certain address is assigned to each byte or array.


2. Device Management

Operating system manage the devices with help of different drivers. It allocates the device and time slice to it. It keeps track of all connected devices. Deallocate devices when they are no longer used.


3. Processor Management

In the case of multiple programs, OS decides the order of the process in which they will execute and the time taken by each process. It is also called process scheduling. It keeps track of all processes.


4. File Management

It is used to manage all files. For better performance file is organized in the form of directories. A directory may or may not contain a sub-directory. It keeps track status of every file and its path location.


5. Process Management


Process management is used to manage the process. It is used to create, terminate, and management of processes. OS manages the process through process scheduling.


6. Process State

The process state is used to define the current status of the process. This includes the various details of our process. There are different states such are.


1. New state


It is used to create a new process and allocate time to it.

2. Ready state


In this state, the process is waiting for the CPU to be assign.


3. Waiting state

In the waiting state, the process is waiting for resources or performed input-output operation. After performing all operations again CPU is assigned to the process.


4. Execution state

It is an important task of the process. The process is executing by the CPU.


5. Suspend state


When the process is ready for execution but there is no space in the ready pool to keep these processes. In these cases, the process is suspended.


7. Terminate state

After performing all input-output operation processes is terminated and release all resources.


Types of operating system


1. Batch Systems


In the case of a batch system, similar kinds of programs or jobs are grouped together to increase the execution speed. If the process goes for I/O operation, then the CPU sits idle. So Throughput is very less.


2. Multiprogramming system


In the case of a batch system CPU sits idle if the process goes for I/O operation. To eliminate this problem multiprogramming is used. In the case of multi-programming CPU is switching between different processes, if one process goes for I/O operation. It is a non-preemptive system.


3. Multi-Tasking system


It is also called a time-sharing operating system. In the case of multi-tasking, multiple processes are running concurrently. The throughput of the system is increased.

4. Real-Time OS

The time interval to respond over input is very less. It is divided into two types.


1. Hard Real-Time system

Hard real-time systems are deadly time-bounded, no delay should be accepted. Example missile system.


2. Soft Real-Time system


In the case of a soft real-time system, minor delays should be accepted. Example live to stream.

5. Distributed system


In the case of distributed system machines are distributed in a loosely coupled environment. Every system has its unique resources and environment.

6. Clustered system


Multiple systems are coupled together. Its computation power is increased. It is a fault-tolerant and scalable system.

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  1. […] system software is used to operate the hardware components of the operating system. Machine use the low-level language they don’t understand high-level language (English Language). […]

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